Sunday, December 29, 2019
In the 1960s, the United States was on the verge of a major social change. Racism was at the core of the civil rights movement, and its effects that led to systematic discrimination experienced by blacks in work, housing and the education system. Black Americans are Americans, but they had subsisted as second class citizens in the only land they knew. The civil rights movement was a political, legal, and social struggle so that African Americans in the United States could become full citizens. This movement was the first and most important as a result of racial segregation which had continued separating African Americans from whites. Although, it had sympathizers and support of whites, but the civil rights movement was planned, guided, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The arrest of Rosa Parks was also force in the events prior to the movement. In 1955, Parks was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama for violating segregation laws by sitting in front of a city bus. In 1963, the March of Wa shington called on the federal government to pass sweeping civil rights legislation and publicized the lack of economic opportunity for African Americans (Trowbridge, 2017). At times peaceful activism, while in other moments violence from hate groups or the counter actions of radical black groups that had grown impatient about the persistence of inequality. African Americans struggle for equality reached its climax in the mid-1960s. After several gradual victories in the previous decade, African Americans became even more committed to nonviolent direct action. In 1960 some Afro-American higher education students staged a sit-down at a segregated restaurant in Woolworth, North Carolina, and refused to leave. The sit-down attracted the attention of the media and gave rise to other similar demonstrations throughout the South These groups also organized rallies, the largest of which was the March to Washington in 1963. More than 200,000 people gathered in the nation s capital to express their commitment to equality for all. The climax of a day of songs and speeches came when Martin Luther King Jr., who had emerged as the leading spokesman for civil rights, took theShow MoreRelatedImpact Of The Civil Rights Movement1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesworld (Gandhi). Throughout the American history, the greatest number of people through an awkward to live peacefully. The Civil Right Movement in the United states has been a long, primarily nonviolent attempt to bring full civil rights and justice under the law to all Americans. The movement has sustained a lasting impact on the United States society. Before the civil right movement, the great migration of 1916- 1940, some blacks still lived in the south under the Jim crow, where state laws kept themRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement And Its Impact1877 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Civil Rights Era is often recognized during its height in the 1950s and 1960s, however the beginning of the Civil Rights Era could be argued to start from slavery to freedom. Once the slaves gained freedom, with the help of Northern whites, they were able to enjoy some of the rights that was once reserved for whites. These newly found rights are due to the Reconstruction Act of 1867, which demanded universal male, the ratification of the 14th amendment, and guaranteed the citizenship of all naturalRead MoreThe Impact Of The Civil Rights Movement1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof civil rights was a major one throughout the post-Civil War Reconstruction period and remained so throughout the period leading up to the Korean War in the 1960s. The civil rights struggle was caused largely by southern statesÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment of African Americans. Slavery was a rampant practice in the pre-Civil War south, and even those African Americans who managed to obtain their freedom were not treated as equals to other citizens in the southern states. Free black men did not have the right to voteRead MoreEssay on The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe way American s lived 80 years ago has a significant impact on our society today. Major work from small-town residents during the 1930s, make it possible for Americans to live as comfortably as they do currently. Civil rights were improved and the fields of technology, science, and medicine soared. Ambitious geniuses were improving such topics, but little did they realize that they were actually shaping future American culture.The important achievements and discoveries made during the 1930s madeRead MoreImpact Of Nonviolence On The Civil Rights Movement912 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNonviolence and ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Impact on the Civil Rights Movement The success of the fight for racial equality, also known as the Civil Rights Movement, in the United States was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between the 1950s and the 1960s, civil rights activists practiced non violence in hopes to end racial segregation and discrimination across the country and worldwide. Leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr., Jim Lawson, and John Lewis believed strongly in this philosophy of nonviolenceRead MorePositive Impact Of The Civil Rights Movement1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement is the movement for equal rights for African-Americans. Throughout the years, people have used their first amendment right the speak freely and to protest. This has lead to change in America. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what citizenship is about, when you feel like something should be changed you can do something about. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen it happen in the past, when people want change, they will either express their opinion by voting for it on the ball ot or do something larger than that like protestingRead MoreWhat Was The Impact Of The Civil Rights Movement1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement was issued to end racial segregation against African Americans and to provide the equal citizenship rights mentioned in the U.S. Constitution. It occurred between 1954 and 1968, especially in the South and was a struggle by African Americans to achieve civil rights equal to whites including equal availability in employment, housing, education, freedom to vote, equal access to public facilities, and free of racial discrimination. Before Civil Rights Movement Act, AfricanRead MoreRosa Parkss Impact On The Civil Rights Movement1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand tensions started to climax during the era of the Civil Rights Movement, this discourse soon meet its challengers. In Montgomery, Alabama, arguably one of the most racist and defiant cities towards the movement of integration, people began to challenge the notion of racial se gregation through a movement known as the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This movement, which lasted from December of 1955 to December of 1956, helped push the civil rights movement forward and challenge the dominant discourse of whiteRead MoreHistorical Impacts Of The Civil Rights Movement Of The 1960s880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s has one of the most historical impacts of any nation to date. The movements from Martin Luther King, Jr. to the Black Panther Party started with boycotts, sit-ins and non-violent protests in the 1950s, but these were the motions and historical points that started the revolution. In what many others perceived as civil disobedience, the movements were designed to instill the notion, that no man or woman shall be deprived of their freedom of life, liberty andRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement And Its Impact On Gender Discrimination Essay1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdifferent if I interviewed a different person. People who are knowl edgeable and open minded would have different way of thinking than those who have limited vision of life. One of things that I have been trying to get answers of, is the Civil Rights Movement and its impact on gender discrimination. Based on my very limited experience and as I know from Gerontology class, my interviewee seems to have a successful aging. Successful aging means more than aging without disease. Rowe and Kahn (1998, p. 38)
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Although SÃ âobodzianek draws on historical events from the lives of others, while Dovaltov draws upon his own life; both authors move beyond facts to detailed narratives. Henri Bergson provides a framework of analysis for this conjoining of historical facts and fictional details in his two categories of memory involved in the writing of documentary proseL mechanical memory (remembering facts/frameworks) and spontaneous memory (details beyond the catalogue of the mechanical memory). Our Class and The Suitcase corroborate spontaneous memory through mechanical memory. For instance, Jakub Katz relates the death of JÃ ³zef PiÃ âsudski, Polish Chief Statesman and advocate of the Jewish people, without mentioning his name, instead complementing the mechanical description of the year, Ã¢â¬Å"1953,Ã¢â¬ with the spontaneous details of the event: Ã¢â¬Å"The whole country was in mourning. Everyone wept. Jews more than anyone.Ã¢â¬ Similarly, DovlatovÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator frames his mem ory of an historic election in terms of meeting his wife, Ã¢â¬Å"We met twenty years ago in LeningradÃ¢â¬ ¦Sunday. February 18. Election day,Ã¢â¬ filling in the spontaneous details of how his wife Ã¢â¬Å"looked like a schoolteacher, meaning a bit of an old maid.Ã¢â¬ Dovlatov provides a self-referential example of his aesthetic additions to history in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter with a sculptor. The sculptorÃ¢â¬â¢s piece, a statue of Lomonosov holding a globe, shows an impossibly detailed topography of the Americas, including specific mountain ranges, lakes, andShow MoreRelatedThe Kite Runner and Novel1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMake a case, using specific plot points and historical facts to ground your argument. Examine the concept of circularity in the novel. What important cycles exist in the characters lives and histories? How is circularity connected to redemption? Explore the way in which courage is portrayed in the novel. What constitutes true bravery? What are the key moments when characters are brave and who is the bravest character, if any? Use specific examples from the text to support your argument. Each characterRead MoreHistory and Memory Essay1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof history and memory is essential in making meaning, i.e. in shaping perceptions of the world around us. How does baker represent this combination to create meaning? History can be viewed as a sequential series of indisputable events, whereas memory is of such events that are highly subjective, and affect the way in which they are perceived. The link between history and memory and the way it shapes the world around us, is a component of past and present. We are shown this throughout the prescribedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth, The King Of Scotland944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration of adapting a historical event to the character Macbeth is what leads ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play to success. The connection between both the historical version and a play version is known to be extraordinary. The imagination to take one character and twist his history is fascinating in every aspect leading readers to know more about the play. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of the tragedy Macbeth compares and contrasts to the historical biography of Macbeth as the king of Scotland. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MorePerspective And Perception Of An Event1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgive us the best accounts of history. Perception is the understanding of an event through senses or mostly in this case, emotions. One person may have a totally different account of an event than another, solely based on their emotions or involvement from the event. Perspective is a particular attitude or view toward an event. This is mostly facts about the event, and is what is written down or recorded in texts or historical sources. My first interviewee was my teacher Angelica Ramos. Her father wasRead MoreWorking Around the Limitations of Biography1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshistorians worldwide will most likely never agree on one approach. Empiricism for instance, the historical school of thought that has been used by historians for almost 200 years, is both a theory of knowledge, an epistemology, as well as a method of historical enquiry. The theorys followers argued that historians should only use primary sources, those that are created at the particular time of the event, and stressed the importance of remaining unbiased in research. But how undeniable and factualRead MorePersepolis Themes1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbook, Marjane utilizes historical events that affect her life during her upbringing in Iran. These include the oppression of the Shah, as well as the rise and effects of the regime. These eventsÃ¢â¬â¢ integration into the story showcase how they affect Marjane and the other citizens of her c ountry. Additionally, these events are important for the context and understanding that they grant readers unfamiliar with the text. The revolution and fall of the Shah is one of the first events we see in the story.Read MorePompeii, By Janet Scott Batchler And Lee Batchler929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesselected for this film review is Pompeii, a 2014 historical disaster movie that was directed by Paul W.S. Anderson and written by Janet Scott Batchler and Lee Batchler. The movie was adapted from a 2003 book with the same title that was written by Robert Harris. I chose Pompeii because I heard about the devastating event that took place in the ancient Roman city in various television programs and books. As a result, I wanted to learn more about the event and the daily life of Pompeii before the volcanicRead MoreAnne Frank Analysis782 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare so many ways that the historical event caused change to the mood of the characters and the relationship ,before the holocaust happened Anne Frank was just a ordinary girl that lived in germany and she was a jew. There was a guy named Adolf Hitler and he made a plan to destroy the jews and to rule over these specific places were Jews lived and to only have germans there. Wait until you hear what hitler did to these poor Jews, it is terrible. The first historical event that the story influencedRead MoreLiterary Devices Of An Oral Performance Essay1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesgriotÃ¢â¬â¢s story are valid because there is a meaning behind every event. Historical events have meanings that require the ability to see the big picture in order to comprehend them. These meanings may include moral decisions of the figure, a decisionÃ¢â¬â¢s consequences, as well as the personality traits that helped the figure thrive during the event. The meaning of an historical event should not be confused with the plot or the time line of events because the meaning coincides with the significance of whatRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Book Of Bones By Boubacar Boris Diop1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreaders what they are addressing, and makes them feel a connection to whatÃ¢â¬â¢s on the paper. Historical fiction is an often-forgotten genre of storytelling, but can be the most powerful as it takes events that have occurred in the past and cr eates a story with them. Persia Woolley addresses this idea in his piece about how to write historical fiction and looks at what makes some stories more powerful than others. Each author is different in how they balance the history and fiction in their stories and
Thursday, December 12, 2019
The Importance of Working Capital Management to the Survival of Business Organisations free essay sample
CHAPTER ONE 1. 1 INTRODUCTION Working Capital has been defined as the net asset of a business, that is, the excess of current assets over current liabilities. It is the resources required to conduct the daily of core activities of any business setup small businesses, medium businesses or large scale enterprises. Any business which desire to perpetually remain in business must ensure a healthy level of its working capital by maintaining a sound relationship between the current assets and current liabilities as required by various factors as defined by the market and its own policies. The finance manager has the responsibilities of carrying out careful analysis of every activity having financial implication on the company in order to check and control any under or over utilization of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources which may have any shortcoming effects on the realization of the corporate goal. Every business needs finance for two purposes: * Long term financing which is required to provide facilities upon which the business will carry out its operations; and * Short term financing which the business needs for the recurring purchase of raw materials, payment of wages and salaries and other day-to-day expenses. It is referred to as revolving or circulating or working capital. It is simply the difference between the current assets and the current liabilities as defined above. As a business owner, you must constantly be alert to changes in working capital and their implications; otherwise, you may miss some warning signs that can lead to business failure. Performances of businesses in terms of profits made at a particular period, financial health and strength in terms of advantages over their competitors at any point in time are areas to which working capital contributions cannot be looked down upon. Hence, it is important for managers to ensure relentless efforts towards keeping a sound working capital level in order to optimally achieve organizational goals. An effective and efficient management of the working capital resources is a necessity for all forms business and sizes for continuous operation and favorable return on investment. This is known as working capital management. The manager takes several items which constitute working capital into consideration such as inventories, account receivables and account payables. In fact, these components of working capital are so important that analysts look to the combined health of all of these areas of operation as an indicator of an individual companys level of efficiency. It is a short term capital required to finance a firm on a day-to-day basis. It is a key measure of business liquidity. The more working capital a firm has, the less risk there is of the firm not being able to pay its creditors when the bills become due. Conversely the less working capital a firm has, the greater the risk of the firm not being able to pay its creditors when the bills are due. Working capital is an operational necessity (Fung, Hebb ; Rogers 2001). A firm needs to invest in short-term current assets such as stocks and also needs debtors to allow it to perform its day-to-day operations. This investment in current assets is for the short term, as raw materials will be bought, converted into finished product, and sold to customers who ultimately will pay. For many businesses this cycle will be completed within a short timeframe, and will be repeated many times over during the year. For others, this cycle may become considerably extended. The investment in current assets requires to be financed and a primary source of this financing is the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s current liabilities, particularly the credit received from suppliers. In relation to shareholder value, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s investment in working capital should produce cash returns that add to the market value of the firm and thus to the wealth of its shareholders. However, excessive investment in working capital will depress returns, by increasing the opportunity costs of having funds unnecessarily tied up in current assets (Mcmenamin 1999). Alternatively, insufficient investment in working capital increases the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of financial distress or insolvency by not having sufficient funds available to pay creditors when the bills become due. A constant preoccupation of the financial manager will beÃ trying to establish in working capital management the risk-return trade-off which maximizes the market value of the firm. It is worth re-emphasizing that while working capital management accentuates short-term financial decisions and policies, these will, however, be framed in the context of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s overall corporate strategy, with the aim of realizing its strategic objectives and the primary goal of maximizing shareholder value (Nanda ; Narayanan 2004). Effective working capital management involves financial decision-making, planning and control activities related to each of the above three elements of working capital. Sufficient working capital is needed, not only to be able to pay bills on timeÃ but also to be able to carry sufficient stocks and also to allow debtors a period of credit to pay what they owe. Working capital is thus the kind of capital required to finance a firm on a day-to-day basis. Recall that working capital is also a key measure of business liquidity. The more working capital a firm has, the less risk there is of the firm not being able to pay its creditors. Conversely the less working capital a firm has, the greater the risk of not being able to pay creditors when payment becomes due. Having an adequate level of working capital is therefore vitally important for the survival of any business. Bearing in mind that the overall goal of the firm is the maximization of shareholder wealth, for the financial manager the objective of working capital management is to help achieve this goal (Comiskey ; Mulford 2000). To this end there are two key tasks involved in the management of working capital. One is the key task of achieving a balance in investment: not to over- or under-invest funds in working capital. Excessive investment in working capital is a wasteful and unproductive use of resources: insufficient investment in working capital risks costly disruptions to operations and possible insolvency (Studart 1995). The key task for the financial manager is to determine the level of working capital which balances risk and return and maximizes shareholder wealth. The other key task is managing the rate of asset turnover, which is an indicator of how efficiently a company utilizes its assets: the higher the rate of an assetÃ¢â¬â¢s turnover the less money needs to be invested in the asset. The level of investment in working capital needs to be sufficient to permit the firm to operate smoothly and efficiently. To invest more than this level represents money unnecessarily tied up in idle current assets, money that could be used more profitably elsewhere in the business. Over-investment in working capital, that is, having a level of working capital which exceeds operational requirements, is a wasteful and inefficient use of funds. On the other hand, under-investment in working capital, that is having a level of working capital which is below operational requirements, can hamper and rustrate daily operations (Barsky ; Jablonsky 2001). Managing the working capital is important to make sure that the firm is able to continue operating with enough finances to pay debts and spend on some future expenses. Managing the working capital can be done by the use of cash management, inventory management, debtorsÃ¢â¬â¢ management and the concept of short term financing. Managing the w orking capital can be exemplified by some companies mostly manufacturing. They use the concept of short term financing to manage their working capital. Such companies can make further use of working capital management by making sure that they properly manage their debtors and their liabilities effectively. Companies need to make sure that they will have enough sources of finances and budgets by making sure that all their debtors will give their dues. Managing the debts involve reminding the debtors their responsibility regularly. The most important component of working capital is cash, far the most important asset of any business, particularly a small business. Without it, the business will fail. So it is of paramount importance for you as the business owner to control all cash transactions. It is helpful for us, as a business owner, to think of working capital in terms of five components: 1. Cash and equivalents- This most liquid form of working capital requires constant supervision. A good cash budgeting and forecasting system provides answers to key questions such as: Is the cash level adequate to meet current expenses as they come due? What is the timing relationship between cash inflow and outflow? When will peak cash needs occur? When and how much bank borrowing will be needed to meet any cash shortfalls? When will repayment be expected and will the cash flow cover it? 2. Accounts receivable- Many businesses extend credit to their customers. If you do, is the amount of accounts receivable reasonable relative to sales? How rapidly are receivables being collected? Which customers are slow to pay and what should be done about them? 3. Inventory- Inventory is often as much as 50 percent of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s current assets, so naturally it requires continual scrutiny. Is the inventory level reasonable compared with sales and the nature of your business? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the rate of inventory turnover compared with other companies in your type of business? 4. Accounts payable- Financing by suppliers is common in small business; it is one of the major sources of funds for entrepreneurs. Is the amount of money owed suppliers reasonable relative to what you purchase? What is your firmÃ¢â¬â¢s payment policy doing to enhance or detract from your credit rating? 5. Accrued expenses and taxes payable- These are obligations of your company at any given time and represent a future outflow of cash.